Abstract: Vision is the most important part of human physiology as 83% of information human being gets from the environment is via sight. The 2011 statistics by the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are 285 billion people in world with visual impairment, 39 billion of which are blind and 246 with low vision. The traditional and oldest mobility aids for persons with visual impairments are the walking cane (also called white cane or stick) and guide dogs. The most important drawbacks of these aids are necessary skills and training phase, range of motion and very little information conveyed. With the rapid advances of modern technology, both in hardware and software front has brought potential to provide intelligent navigation capabilities. Recently there has been a lot of Electronic Travel Aids (ETA) designed and devised to help the blind navigate independently and safely. Also high-end technological solutions have been introduced recently to help blind persons navigate independently .Many blind guidance systems use ultrasound because of its immunity to the environmental noise. Another reason why ultrasonic is popular is that the technology is relatively inexpensive, and also ultrasound emitters and detectors are small enough to be carried without the need for complex circuit.
Keywords: Helmet, PIC Microcontroller, Ultrasonic Sensor, RF, Transmitter, Receiver.