Abstract: This paper proposes steganalysis methods for extensions of least-significant bit (LSB) overwriting to both of the two lowest bit planes in digital images: there are two distinct embedding paradigms. The author investigates how detectors for standard LSB replacement can be adapted to such embedding, and how the methods of “structural steganalysis,” which gives the most sensitive detectors for standard LSB replacement, may be extended and applied to make more sensitive purpose-built detectors for two bit plane steganography. The literature contains only one other detector specialized to detect replacement multiple bits, and those presented here are substantially more sensitive. The author also compares the detectability of standard LSB embedding with the two methods of embedding in the lower two bit planes: although the novel detectors have a high accuracy from the steganographer’s point of view, the empirical results indicate that embedding in the two lowest bit planes is preferable (in some cases, highly preferable) to embedding in one.

Keywords: Steganography, Cryptography, Image, LSB (Least significant bit).