Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network is a diverse network and in this resource-constrained sensor nodes are deployed in the monitoring region for collecting data and transmit it to the destination via routing. An optimal selection of a route for the data transmission helps to extend the lifetime of a network by consuming less energy. In this paper, the different routing protocol strategies have been discussed based on a routing path. However, dynamical changes in the network such as mobility, node density, and traffic cause connection breakage, routing overhead, node failure, delay and thereby data loss may occur. It can affect the overall network performance. In order to overcome these problems, efficient routing protocols were introduced. The significance of this survey is to investigate the impact of overhead, mobility as well as scalability factors on a wide range of routing protocols. All routing protocols are described under their specific category i.e. reactive, proactive and hybrid. Further, a performance comparison among routing protocols is discussed on the basis of some parameters like mobility, scalability, energy efficiency etc.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Optimal Path Decision, Routing Protocols, Energy efficiency, Network Lifetime.