Abstract: Since ancient times, in various cultures and religions, there has been a strong belief that alcohol offers important health benefits. In recent years, the idea that regular alcohol consumption protects against cardiovascular disease has gained momentum. Individuals who drink moderately reduce their risk of dying from heart disease by approximately 40%. Wine has been part of human culture for 6,000 years, serving dietary and socio religious functions. Its production takes place on every continent, and its chemical composition is profoundly influenced by ecological techniques, the grape cultivar from which it originates, and climatic factors. In addition to ethanol, which in moderate consumption can reduce mortality from coronary heart disease by increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and inhibiting platelet aggregation, wine (especially red wine) contains a range of polyphenols that have desirable biological properties. The antioxidant effects of red wine and of its major polyphenols have been demonstrated in many experimental systems spanning the range from in vitro studies (human low-density lipoprotein, liposomes, macrophages, cultured cells) to investigations in healthy human subjects. Wine is like any other food it should be consumed sensibly and in amounts that are beneficial to health. Overindulgence of any kind does not promote good health.

Keywords: Wine, polyphenols, bacteria, ROS.