Abstract: The multitude of possible applications supported by wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has generated much interest from the research community. The recent advancement in technology have enabled the development of low cost, energy-efficient and versatile wireless sensing devices. The wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have dynamic and distributed nature which introduces very special requirements for the routing protocols that should be fulfilled. The most significant feature of a routing protocol is the energy efficiency and the extension of the network lifetime, in order to be efficient for WSNs. The Threshold Sensitive Stable Election Protocol (TSEP) is a three level heterogeneous reactive routing protocol. The energy dissipation is reduced due to energy heterogeneity and prolongs network lifetime, increases the stability period and throughput.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, routing protocols, threshold sensitive stable election protocol, graphical user interface, heterogeneous environment.