Abstract: In wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has offered the accessibility of small as well as low-cost sensor nodes with capability of sensing different types of physical and environmental conditions, data processing, and wireless communication. Various types of sensing capabilities results in large amount of application domain. Moreover, the characteristics of wireless sensor networks need more effective techniques for data forwarding along with processing. In WSN, the sensor nodes have a limited transmission range, and their processing and storage capabilities as well as their energy resources are also limited. For managing the routes in the network and to ensure reliable multi-hop interaction under these conditions routing protocols in wireless sensor networks are responsible. This paper, studies the different types of recent routing protocols in Wireless Sensor Network and compare their strengths and limitations.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, routing protocols, energy efficient, multi hop, data forwarding.