Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an ad-hoc net-work consisting of sensor nodes having limited computational power fitted with a radio transceiver. This has been enabled by the availability, particularly in recent years, of sensors that are smaller, cheaper, and intelligent. These sensors are equipped with wireless interfaces with which they can communicate with one another to form a network. The design of a WSN depends significantly on the application, and it must consider factors such as the environment, the application’s design objectives, cost, hardware, and system constraints. Main constraint of a sensor node is the limitation of its energy resource in the form of a short battery life. Battery power conservation is very important in a sensor device since battery life is usually one of the critical components in extending the life time of sensor nodes and its network. Therefore energy optimization techniques must be performed while designing a network system. Problems of how to reduce energy consumption to maximize network lifetime has been studied extensively. But most of the approaches focus on selecting the shortest or energy-efficient routing path, often change in leader nodes based on residual energy, packet size optimization to prolong network lifetime. Work has been done on congestion control and minimization of packet Percussion, however congestion Elusion in sensor network has not received serious study until recently. The paper describes a network using congestion Elusion Topography or PETopography where every wireless sensor is deterministically deployed throughout the sensing area. A congestion Elusion data retrieval strategy is proposed by forming an optimal congestion Elusion tree or PETree of sensor nodes using K-map and K-graph. Network ensures congestion free multi-hop data routing that significantly reduces packet Percussion and retransmission. As a result sink packet loss ratio and network end-to-end delay improves and maximizes energy efficiency and network lifetime.
Keywords: packet loss; packet retransmission ,wireless sensor network; sensor nodes; stationary sink; network lifetime; energy efficiency; congestion detection; congestion Elusion.