Abstract: Retinal image analysis is one of the crucial topics in medical image processing. During the last three decades, people are trying to extract the different features (like blood vessels, optic disk, macula, fovea etc.) automatically from retinalimage. Fovea and optic disc are the important features of a fundus retinal image.The quantitative analysis of retinal images is of increasing importance in the diagnosis of the various eye disorders.Hence a number of algorithms and techniques are being developed for its segmentation. This paper analyses various algorithms and techniques proposed earlier for the detection of optic disc and fovea.

Keywords: Optic Disc, Fovea localization, Fundus image, Segmentation, Image processing.