Abstract: Geographical Clustering Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (GCEER) protocol has been proposed for UWSNs. It is a geographic and opportunistic routing protocol. Increasing attention has recently been devoted to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) because of their capabilities in the ocean monitoring and resource discovery. UWSNs are faced with different challenges, the most notable of which is perhaps how to efficiently deliver packets taking into account all of the constraints of the available acoustic communication channel. In this paper, we propose an enhanced routing protocol, called Geographical Clustering Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (GCEER). This address the void problem and the energy reliability trade-off in the selection of forwarding set. GCEER takes advantage of distributed beaconing, constructs the adjacency graph at each hop and selects a forwarding set that holds the best trade-off between reliability and energy efficiency. The unique features of GCEER in selecting the candidate nodes near each other leads to the resolution of the Using geographical information for distributing the queries to the appropriate regions which is done by neighbor selection on the basis of energy and the location to route the packet.

Keywords: Underwater sensors, opportunistic routing.