Abstract: Quantum theory is one of the most fortunate theories that have influenced the course of scientific progress all through the 20th century. Quantum mechanics has given us the concept of quantum computers by using principles like superposition and quantum entanglement which seek to significantly boost the computational power and now it has become an evolution in classical computer science. We know that Current cryptography systems are based on the process called prime factoring which is vulnerable due to both significant enhancement in computational power and advancement in mathematics to reverse one way function like Shor’s algorithm. To solve this problem, we need to induce quantum physics in current cryptographic system which leads us to the topic “Quantum Cryptography” which works on the principle of “Quantum Key Distribution”. QKD is the scheme which allow the generation of shared private key, which can be used with a traditional encryption algorithm or as a one-time pad which encrypts each message for one time use key. But QKD only works if we can successfully transfer entangled quantum states or qubits over long distances perfectly intact, leading us to the concept of “Quantum Information Theory” or quantum internet. The scope of this paper covers concept of quantum computing, weaknesses of current cryptosystems, post quantum cryptographic system, fundamental concept of quantum cryptographic system and quantum information theory with challenges of implementing it in real world and its limitation and finally about upcoming future of transition of digital age to quantum age.
Keywords: Quantum Computers, Quantum Key Distribution, Quantum Information Theory, BB84 Protocol
| DOI: 10.17148/IJARCCE.2021.10570